Operating a Business

flag Syria Syria: Operating a Business

In this page: Legal Forms of Companies | The Active Population in Figures | Working Conditions | The Cost of Labour | Management of Human Resources

 

Legal Forms of Companies

Private Limited Company
Number of partners: Minimum of two partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.
Public Limited Company
Number of partners: One or more shareholders.
Capital (max/min):  SYP 30,000
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.
Limited Partnership
Number of partners: In addition of general partners there is one or more limited partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited for sleeping partners and unlimited for active partners.
Joint stock limited partnership
Number of partners: In addition of general partners there is one or more limited partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited for some partners and unlimited for others.
General Partnership
Number of partners: Minimum 2 partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Partners' liability is indefinite and joint.
General Professional Associations
Syrian Business Council
 

Business Setup Procedures

Setting Up a Company Syria Middle East & North Africa
Procedures (number) 7.00 6.28
Time (days) 15.50 19.51

Source: Doing Business - Latest available data.

 
For Further Information
Consult Doing Business Website, to know about procedures to start a Business in Syria.
Syria Investment Agency
The Competent Organisation
Foreign companies have to be registered with the Ministry of Economy and Trade.
 

Recovery Procedures

Bankruptcy Laws
Regulations concerning the procedures in case of bankruptcy do not have but a light impact on the pre-existing principles and they do not make a distinction between civil and commercial affairs. The laws regarding the bankruptcy of a company are tremendously inefficient and personal connections are able to influence on the verdicts pronounced for companies that find themselves in a bankruptcy situation.

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The Active Population in Figures

201820192020
Labour Force 5,147,9535,224,0305,165,789

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

 
201720182019
Total activity rate 46.44%46.65%46.84%
Men activity rate 77.23%77.58%77.89%
Women activity rate 15.48%15.63%15.76%

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

 

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Working Conditions

Opening Hours
 
  • Legal Weekly Duration
42 hours.
Working Rest Day
They do not work on Fridays.
Retirement Age
60 in the civil service.
Informal Labour Market
The informal work sector is very significant in Syria. It represents more than 40% of the active population. Most of the persons employed in the informal sector work in agriculture, building, construction (24%) and commerce (14%).

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The Cost of Labour

Pay

Minimum Wage
SYP 37,600 per month for civil servants (source: Enab Baladi, 2020)
Average Wage
Gross average monthly wage for civil servants: SYP 149,000 (source: Enab Baladi, 2020)
Other Forms of Pay
  • Pay For Overtime
In certain cases, the employer can ask the employee to work extra hours. The overtime hours cannot exceed 12 hours of continuous work. For more information consult the site ILO (International Labor Organization).
  • Pay For Night Hours
Consult the Law texts in relation to the organization of night jobs. There is one law in particular regarding night jobs for women.
 

Social Security Costs

Contributions
Contributions Paid By the Employer: 17.1% of payroll costs, divided as follows: 14% to cover old age, disability and death benefits; 3% to the work injury benefits scheme; and 0.1% to a lump-sum disability benefits fund.
Contributions Paid By the Employee: 7% of income.

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Management of Human Resources

 

Recruitment

Recruitment Websites
Job.sy
Middle East Jobs 77
 

The Contract

Type of Contract
The law is very specific and precise regarding the contracts of employment. The sources of labor legislation in the Syrian Arab Republic are law n°91 of  April 5, 1959 and legislative decree n°49 of  July 3, 1962. The contract must be drawn up in Arabic with a duplicate, with a copy for each party (art. 43, LC). The trial period is stated in the contract, but it cannot exceed 3 months (art. 44, LC). A contract of employment can be established for a short term period or for an unspecified period of time. If it is agreed for a short term period and both parties continue to comply with it after the expiration date, it must be renewed for an indefinite period of time (art. 71, LC).

Breach of Contracts

  • Retirement
The decrees No. 349 and No. 120 of 1961 regulate pensions and retirement.
  • Dismissals
Dismissals are difficult and costly. An employer cannot break a contract without a previous notice and without compensations, unless the employee has filled in one of the conditions stipulated in the article 76 of the labor code.
For more information, consult the site of the ILO (International Labor Organization).
  • Other Possible Methods
To be able to resign from their jobs, the employees of the public sector are required to obtain a prior authorization. This procedure is usually difficult and takes a long time.
Labour Laws
All the textes about Labor Law
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the labor regulations that apply to local entreprises.
 

Social Partners

Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
The General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU) is the organization which represents workers in Syria. Since 1968, a decree has obliged all the country's trade unions to belong to the GFTU. This organization is strictly controlled by the ruling Baath party. It coordinates most aspects of union activity and determines which sectors or activities may create a union or a federation. As a consequence, union action is minimal and strikes are very rare.
Unionisation Rate
The unionization rate in Syria is 100 %. Belonging to a trade union is mandatory in order to be employed.
Regulation Bodies
Syrian Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor.
 
 

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Latest Update: May 2022