Business Environment

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In this page: Accounting Rules | Tax Rates | Intellectual Property | Legal Framework | Standards | Business Practices

 

Accounting Rules

Tax Year
The tax year is the calendar year or any other 12-month period. If the tax period differs from the calendar year, the taxpayer may not change the tax period for three years.
Accounting Standards
The Companies Act (ZGD-1) sets the requirements for the preparation of corporate financial statements in Slovenia and transposes the EC Accounting Directive (2013/34/EU). The Act outlines the accounting standards to be applied by different types of entities based on their size and public accountability. Public interest entities, defined as listed companies, banks and insurances companies, are required to apply EU-endorsed IFRS in their consolidated and separate financial statements. Companies that apply IFRS must do so for a period of at least five years.

All other companies have the option to apply either IFRS or Slovenian Accounting Standards (SAS) which are developed by the Slovenian Institute of Auditors (SIA). SAS are approved by the Minister of Finance and Minister of Economic Development and Technology. Upon approval of both ministries, the standards are published in the Official Gazette.

Certain exemptions apply regarding micro, small and medium sized-enterprises (MSMEs), which are allowed to: (i) submit abridged balance sheets; (ii) draw up abridged profit and loss accounts, subject to prescribed limits; and (iii) companies whose securities are not traded on a regulated market are exempted from preparation of business report. However, certain types of companies are never considered to be a MSME regardless of size (i.e. banks, insurance companies, stock exchanges and any company required to prepare consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS). IFRS for SMEs is not required in Slovenia.
Accounting Regulation Bodies
Agency for the Public Oversight of Auditing (APOA)
Court of Audit
Accounting Reports
Business books are kept on a double entry bookkeeping bases except for small entrepreneurs.

Annual reports of entrepreneurs and personal companies should comprise at least the balance sheet and income statement.

Annual reports of small share capital companies whose shares are not listed on the stock exchange should as a minimum contain balance sheet, income statement and annexes with an explanation of the reports stipulated by law.

Annual reports produced by large and medium-sized capital companies, dual companies and small companies whose shares are listed on the stock exchange should contain balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statements, statement on changes in equity and explanatory annexes as stipulated by law.
Publication Requirements
All business entities registered in the Slovenian Business Register must submit an annual report to the Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Public Legal Records and Related Services (AJPES).
The annual report needs to be submitted by the end of March of the following year.

Micro and small companies (based on criteria defined by Article 55 of the Companies Act) are required to submit data only once for three purposes at the same time: for statistics, publication and tax purposes. Medium-sized and large companies have to submit the data for statistics purposes and publication purposes separately.

A listed company must publish and file its annual report with Securities Market Agency and the Ljubljana Stock Exchange within four months following the end of the financial year. It shall also publish and file with the same authorities its half-year report for the first six months of its financial year as soon as possible, but no later than within two months after the end of this period.

Professional Accountancy Bodies
Association of Accountant Services , in Slovenian.
Slovenian Institute of Auditors - Section of accountants
Certification and Auditing
The standards of accounting, auditing and assessment are set by the Slovenian Institute of Auditors (in Slovenian only). An auditor's report on financial statements shall be prepared and signed by a certified auditor. For more information consult the Auditing Act.
You can contact an external auditor: Ernst & Young, KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte.
Accounting News

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Tax Rates

Consumption Taxes

Nature of the Tax
Value-added tax or (in Slovene): davek na dodano vrednost (DDV).
Tax Rate
22%
Reduced Tax Rate

Slovenia applies a reduced VAT rate of:

  • 5% for books and newspapers (including e-books)
  • 9.5% on foodstuffs (except alcoholic drinks and catering services); water supplies; passenger transport; books, newspapers and periodicals if they contain no more than 50% of the promotional content or content that includes no more than 50% of music, movies and games, including lottery, as well as shows and events in the fields of politics, culture, art, sports, science and entertainment; services of authors and composers; agricultural products and services; pharmaceutical products and medical equipment; cultural events; hotel accommodation; use of sports facilities; services of undertakers and cemetery services
  • Zero-rated supplies include exports of goods outside the EU and related services and intra-Community supplies of goods and intangible services supplied to another taxable person established in the EU or to a recipient outside the EU
  • Exempt: real estate transactions (except “new buildings”); financial services; insurance transactions; betting, gambling and lotteries; public radio and television broadcasts; education; health care and medical services; cultural services.
Other Consumption Taxes
Alcohol and alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, mineral oils and natural gas, electricity, coal and coke are subject to excise duties.

A motor vehicle tax applies to all vehicles that are registered for the first time in Slovenia. The liability is on the entity that imports the vehicle, with rates depending on fuel range, engine power, and emission of CO2 ranging from 0.5% to 31%. Furthermore, the government imposes an additional tax on motor vehicles with engine displacement above 2,500 cc with rates varying according to the size of the engine.

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Corporate Taxes

Company Tax
19%
Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
Slovenian tax residents are liable to pay corporate income tax on their worldwide income, whereas non-residents are only liable to taxation on Slovenia-source income.
A company is deemed to be resident in Slovenia if the entity has its registered seat or place of effective management located in the country.
Capital Gains Taxation
Capital gains are considered ordinary income and taxed at 19%. Gains arising from a transaction subject to the EU merger directive are exempt.
A portion equal to 47.5% of capital gains derived from the sale of shares are exempt if the shares represent a participation of at least 8% and have been held for more than six months, and at least one person is employed on a full-time basis during this period. Similarly, 50% of a loss arising from the disposal of such a shareholding would not be deductible for corporate income tax purposes.
Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
Costs that occur prior to the entry of a legal entity into the court register may not be treated as tax-deductible, the same as for expenses that are not directly necessary for performing business activities or are not incurred as a consequence of business activity. In general, business expenses that are necessary to generate taxable revenues are fully tax-deductible.
Companies may deduct interest expense on loans from their owners or other associated parties up to a maximum of the amount calculated by using the prescribed interest rate published by the Ministry of Finance.
Certain provisions are only 50% tax-deductible when accrued, with the remaining 50% being treated as tax-deductible when the provision is utilised, as the provisions for warranties granted when selling products or providing services, reorganisations/redundancies, anticipated losses from onerous contracts, pensions, long-service bonuses, and severance payments on retirement. As from 1 January 2022 to 31 December 2026, provisions for pensions, for jubilee awards and for severance pay upon retirement shall be tax deductible 100% when formed for each individual tax period.
Entertainment costs are only 60% tax-deductible, those relating to the supervisory board are 50% tax-deductible.

The R&D incentive allows for a 100% deduction of the amount invested in internal R&D activities and the purchase of R&D services. The investment incentive allows for a 40% deduction of the amount invested in certain prescribed equipment and intangible assets, excluding investments in real estate property. Additionally, a special incentive was introduced as part of the post-COVID-19 recovery plan, which allows for a 40% deduction of investment into AI technology, cloud computing, green technology, etc. However, the combined deduction can be used up to the maximum of 63% of the actual tax base.

Bad debt provisions are only tax-deductible if the amount does not exceed the lower of: (i) the arithmetic mean of the bad debts written-off in the past three tax periods, under certain conditions specified in the tax law, and (ii) 1% of taxable revenues of the tax period.

Under certain conditions, a tax-deductible allowance for voluntary supplementary pension insurance may apply (of up to 24% of compulsory contributions for pension and disability insurance for insured employees, capped at EUR 2,819.01/year/employee).

Charitable donations made for humanitarian, disabled, charitable, scientific, educational, medical, sports, cultural, ecological, and religious purposes to residents of Slovenia or of EU or EEA member states are deductible, up to 0.3% of the taxable revenues, plus an additional allowance of 0.2% of the taxable revenues for payments made for cultural purposes and to voluntary organisations that work for the public interest to protect the public from natural and other disasters. As from 1 January 2022, another tax allowance for sport purposes of 3.8% shall be recognised for payments or equivalents to providers of the top sport program for investing in such sport.
Tax losses may be carried forward to subsequent years without a limitation (but only up to a maximum of 63% of the actual tax base), whereas loss carrybacks are not permitted.

Other Corporate Taxes
Other taxes include:

  • a real estate transfer tax of 2% charged on real estate transfers and financial leases of real estate, unless VAT has been charged on the transaction;
  • a tax on financial services provided by banks and other financial institutions (the tax rate is 8.5% and is applied to the fee of the financial service);
  • an insurance premium tax levied on insurance premiums at the rate of 8.5% and paid by insurance companies;
  • an environmental tax charged on CO2 emissions, waste disposal, lubricating oils and fluids, used tyres and used motor vehicles
  • when registering for the first time a motor vehicle in Slovenia, a specific tax applies (rates may vary).

Currently, there is no specific tax levied on immovable property in Slovenia. However, a charge for the use of building land is levied on vacant and constructed building land owned by legal persons and individuals.
Social security contributions paid by the employer amount to 16.1% of the gross salary paid to employees, divided as follows: pension and disability insurance: 8.85%; health insurance: 6.56%; unemployment insurance: 0.06%; injury at work: 0.53%; parental insurance: 0.10%.

Other Domestic Resources
Financial Administration Office
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the taxes and mandatory contributions.
 

Country Comparison For Corporate Taxation

  Slovenia Eastern Europe & Central Asia United States Germany
Number of Payments of Taxes per Year 10.0 13.9 10.6 9.0
Time Taken For Administrative Formalities (Hours) 233.0 226.2 175.0 218.0
Total Share of Taxes (% of Profit) 31.0 36.5 36.6 48.8

Source: Doing Business - Latest available data.

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Individual Taxes

Tax Rate

Personal Income Tax Rate varies between 16% and 50% according to the amount of the income
From EUR 0 to 8,755 16%
From EUR 8,755 to 25,750.00 26%
From EUR 25,750.00 to 51,500.00 33%
From EUR  51,50.00 to 74,160.00 39%
Above EUR 74,160.00 45%
Capital gains, interest, dividends, and rental income 25% flat rate
Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
General individual tax deduction valid for every taxpayer is based on the amount of the yearly income. The general allowance for residents can go from EUR 3,500 to 4,500; the one for residents that are 100% disabled is equal to EUR 18,188.61; the special personal allowance for a resident who is still studying and has a recognised status of a student is EUR 3,500; the allowance for additional pension insurance can go up to EUR 2,903.66. Personal allowance for taxpayers over the age of 70 is set at EUR 1,500 for 2022.
There are also various allowances for dependent family members (varying on the number of children, for example EUR 2,510.03 for the first child, EUR 2,728.72 for the second, up to EUR 8,195.86 for the fifth child, EUR 9,094.90 for a child who needs special care and custody, etc.).
Special Expatriate Tax Regime
Slovenian residents are taxed on their worldwide income, non-residents only on the income sourced in Slovenia. An individual is considered resident for tax purposes if he/she has a formal residential tie with Slovenia; has a habitual abode or centre of personal and economic interests; or is present more than 183 days in a taxable year in Slovenia.
There is no special tax regime for expatriates. Nevertheless, non-residents who are residents of EU or EEA member states can claim the general allowance if at least 90% of personal income is taxable in Slovenia and respective income is exempt from taxation in the country of residency. Click here for further details.

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Double Taxation Treaties

Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
The list of double taxation agreements signed by Slovenia
Withholding Taxes
Dividends: 0 (paid to a resident company)/15% (paid to a non-resident company)/25% (paid to individuals); Interest: 0 (paid to a resident company)/15% (paid to a non-resident company)/25% (paid to individuals); Royalties: 0 (paid to a resident company)/15% (paid to a non-resident company)/25% or progressive individual tax rates if employment income (paid to individuals).
The rates may be lower in accordance with a tax treaty or with the EU parent-subsidiary directive.

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Intellectual Property

National Organisations
The body responsible for industrial property is the SIPO, Slovenian Intellectual Property Office.
Regional Organisations
Member of European Patent Organisation (EPO) and member of Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market of the EU (OHIM).
 

National Regulation and International Agreements

 
Type of property and law Validity International Agreements Signed
Patent
 
Industrial Property Act
20 years
Trademark
 
Industrial Property Act
10 years (renewable indefinitely) Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks
Design
 
Industrial Property Act
5 years (renewable, for a maximum of total 25 years)  
Copyright
 
Copyright and related rights Act
70 years after author's death WIPO Copyright Treaty

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Legal Framework

Independence of Justice
Judiciary in Slovenia is largely independent, though it is overburdened with cases which may take long time to close.
Equal Treatment of Nationals and Foreigners
Yes, the discrimination based on nationality, race, sex, language, religion, political or other beliefs, financial wealth, social status, education or any other personal characteristic is prohibited by the constitution.
The Language of Justice
The judicial language used in the country is Slovenian.
Recourse to an Interpreter
Having an interpreter is possible.
Sources of the Law and Legal Similarities
The main source of the law is the constitution of 1991 and - being a member of the EU - the conditions of the Community legislation.
Checking National Laws Online
Official Slovenian Gazzette website where all the laws are published (in Slovene only)
National Assembly website on legislation
French, German and English translation of the Constitution of Slovenia
English translation of the constitution and law on courts

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Standards

National Standards Organisations
Slovenian Institute for Standardization
Slovenian Metrology Institute
Integration in the International Standards Network
The rules of accreditation, testing, certification and quality control are in line with European standards SIST EN 45000 and international standards ISO 17000 according to the rules and guidelines of EA, ILAC and IAF of which Slovenian accreditation agency is a member. Slovenian institute for standardization is a full member of CEN, ISO, IEC, CENELEC and ETSI.
Classification of Standards
SIST + 4-digit number. When an international, European or other national standard is transposed as a Slovenian standard, the SIST acronym shall be prefixed to the designation of the source standard, for example: SIST ISO 710-6, SIST EN 1080, SIST DIN 1995-1.
Online Consultation of Standards
Catalogue of Slovenian Standards (SIST)
Certification Organisations
Slovenian Institute for Standardization
Slovenian accreditation agency (in Slovene only)

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Business Practices

General Information
Passport to trade, Slovenian business culture
Commisceo Global, Slovenia guide
Opening Hours and Days
Bank branches have very varied working hours, but the majority close for the lunch break. They are mostly open Monday to Friday, from around 8 AM to around noon and from around 2 PM to around 5 PM.

Public administration facilities are open Monday to Friday from 8 AM to noon and from 1 PM to 3 PM. On the other hand, private and international offices are open from 8 AM to 4 PM and, especially in bigger cities, from 9 AM to 5 PM.

Most shops are open Monday to Friday from 8 AM to 7 or 8 PM (sometimes even 9 PM) and on Saturdays from 8 AM to noon. Some large hypermarkets in major cities are open Monday to Saturday from 9 AM to 9 PM and on Sundays from 9 AM to 3 PM.

 

Public Holidays

New Year 1st and 2nd January
Slovene Cultural Day 8th February
Easter (Sunday and Monday) Movable feast
Day of Uprising against (WW-II) Occupation 27th April
International Labour Day 1st and 2nd May
Statehood Day 25th June
Assumption Day 15th August
Reformation Day 31st October
All Saints Day 1st November
Christmas 25th December
Independence and Unity Day 26th December
 
 

Periods When Companies Usually Close

New Year 1 week between Christmas and New Year
1st May 1 week from 27th April to 2nd May
 

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Latest Update: November 2022