Operating a Business

flag Poland Poland: Operating a Business

In this page: Legal Forms of Companies | The Active Population in Figures | Working Conditions | The Cost of Labour | Management of Human Resources

 

Legal Forms of Companies

The Spolka akcyjna (SA) is the equivalent of a public limited company
Number of partners: One or more individual or legal persons with no maximum.
Capital (max/min): 100,000 PLZ of which 25% will be paid up on registering. (Minimum nominal value: 0.01 PLZ)
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount of capital contributed.
The Spolka z oograniczona odpowiedzialnoscia (ZOO) is a limited liability company
Number of partners: One or more individuals or legal persons with no maximum.
Capital (max/min): 5,000 PLZ (Minimum nominal value: 50 PLZ).
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount of capital contributed.
Spolka Jawna (RP) is a Registered Partnership.
Number of partners: A minimum of one, no maximum
Capital (max/min): No restriction on minimal capital.
Shareholders and liability: Unlimited Liability.
Spolka Komandytowa (LP) is a Limited Partnership.
Number of partners: At least two individuals: one as a general partner, and the other as a silent partner.
Capital (max/min): No restriction on minimal capital.
Shareholders and liability: Limited to capital except for general partners (unlimited).
 

Business Directories

Financial Information Directories
Dun & Bradstreet - Worldwide directory with financial information on businesses

To go further, check out our service Business Directories.


 

Professional Associations

General Professional Associations
PKPP - Polish Confederation of Private Employers
Pracodawcy RP - Employers Confederation of Poland

To go further, check out our service Professional Associations.


 

Business Setup Procedures

Setting Up a Company Poland Eastern Europe & Central Asia
Procedures (number) 5.00 5.26
Time (days) 37.00 11.78

Source: Doing Business - Latest available data.

 
The Competent Organisation
The Polish National Court Trade Registry.
For Further Information
Consult Doing Business Website, to know about procedures to start a Business in Poland.
Polish National Court Trade Registry, per conoscere le procedure per avviare un'attività in Polonia.
 

Recovery Procedures

Principle
For information on restructuring and insolvency see here.
Bankruptcy Laws
Act on Bankruptcy and Rehabilitation of 2003. See an extract here.
Reorganization and Rehabilitation Laws
Act on Bankruptcy and Rehabilitation of 2003. See an extract here.

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The Active Population in Figures

201820192020
Labour Force 18,390,67618,318,73418,204,932

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

 
201720182019
Total activity rate 69.85%70.41%70.85%
Men activity rate 76.96%77.40%78.12%
Women activity rate 62.70%63.37%63.51%

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

 
Employed Persons, by Occupation (% of Total Labour Force) 2015
Manufacturing 19.3%
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 14.5%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 11.5%
Education 7.7%
Construction 7.5%
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 6.7%
Human health and social work activities 5.9%
Transportation and storage 5.9%
Professional, scientific and technical activities 3.5%
Administrative and support service activities 2.7%
Financial and insurance activities 2.5%
Information and communication 2.3%
Accommodation and food service activities 2.1%
Mining and quarrying 1.4%
Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.3%
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 1.1%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 1.1%
Real estate activities 1.1%
 
For Further Statistics
Office of statistics GUS

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Working Conditions

Opening Hours
 
  • Legal Weekly Duration
40 hours
  • Maximum Duration
The weekly working time, including overtime, cannot exceed 48 hours on average.
  • Night Hours
The night time is eight hours, between 9 pm and 7 am.
Working Rest Day
At least 11 hours of uninterrupted rest per day and 35 hours of uninterrupted rest per week.
Paid Annual Vacation
Paid vacation is between 14 and 26 days, according to seniority and the position occupied.
Retirement Age
60 for women and 65 for men, but following the revision of the pension system in 2012, the retirement age will be gradually increased to 67.
Child Labour and Minimum Age For Employment
It is forbidden to employ a person younger than 16 years old.
Informal Labour Market
Informal labor is high in construction and transportation industries.

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The Cost of Labour

Pay

Minimum Wage
Since the 1 January 2022, the minimum wage is PLN 3,010 per month (Polish government)
Average Wage
In the first quarter of 2022, the average monthly gross wage and salary amounted to PLN 6,235.2 (Statistics Poland).
According to the OECD, Polish people earned USD 33,850 per year on average in 2021, much less than the OECD average of USD 52,436.
Other Forms of Pay
  • Pay For Overtime
Remuneration for working overtime can be provided in the form of a bonus or a time off work
  • Pay For Rest Days Worked
The employer is obliged to grant other work-free day for an employee who works on Sundays and holidays, and a work-free Sunday at least once every four weeks.
  • Pay For Night Hours
An employee working at night is entitled to a bonus for each hour of work at night.
  • Pay For Overtime at Night
Remuneration for working overtime can be provided in the form of a bonus or a time off work. An employee working at night is entitled to an additional bonus for each hour of work at night.
 

Social Security Costs

The Areas Covered
Old age pension, disability insurance, sickness benefits, accident insurance, health insurance
Contributions
Contributions Paid By the Employer: Pension fund (9.76%), disability fund (6.50%), accident insurance (0,67% - 3,33%), labour fund contribution (2.45%), Employees' Guaranteed Benefits fund contribution (0.10%)
Contributions Paid By the Employee: Old age pension (9.76%), disability insurance (1.50%), sickness benefits (2.45%), health insurance (9%)
Competent Organization
Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Social Security)
Polish Financial Supervision Authority (Pension Funds)

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Management of Human Resources

 

Recruitment

Method of Recruitment
Private and public recruitment agencies, Internet, individual interview.
Recruitment Agencies
A list of employment agencies can be found here. Job opportunities can also be found through the public employment service.
Recruitment Websites
Public employment service
List of employment agencies
Jobs.pl
Job Center
Career Jet
Praca Onet
 

The Contract

Type of Contract
Employment agreements can have a fixed term or an indefinite term. It is possible to enter into a separate contract for a trial period of up to three months.

Legal measures govern work contracts; collective agreements and individual negotiation complete them, but to a lesser extent.
The formality of work contracts and the conditions of hiring and dismissal are extremely rigid.

Breach of Contracts

  • Retirement
Retirement at the legal age, early retirement.
  • Dismissals
Termination with a notice period; termination without notice due to the fault of the employee. Protection exists for employees about to reach retirement age, pregnant women, women who have recently given birth, those on childcare leave, employees in unionised companies who are members of the management of a trade union, and social labour inspectors.
  • Other Possible Methods
Expiration of the contract, resignation, collective dismissal.
Labour Laws
Labour Code
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the labor regulations that apply to local entreprises.
 

Dispute Settlement

 

Conciliation Process

Cases of Dispute
Disputes over working conditions, social benefits, the right to freedom of trade union activity, non observation of rest periods, forced labour.
  • Legal Framework
See the Labor Code
  • Procedure
The Labour Code details the procedure.
 

Judicial Structures

  • Legal Framework
See the Labor Code
  • Competent Legal Body
State Labour Inspectorate, labour courts
 

Social Partners

Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
The law provides for the rights of workers to establish and join independent trade unions, bargain collectively, and conduct legal strikes, but there are limitations. Violations of workers’ rights to organise, join unions and to strike, as well as anti-union discrimination occur. There are a few unions: the free independent union of Poland (NSZZ), the alliance of all Polish unions (OPZZ) and the Polish union of teachers (ZNP).
Unionisation Rate
Union membership has been declining and is currently estimated at 12% of workers.
Unions
Solidarnosc (NSZZ)
All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ)
Polish union of teachers (ZNP)
Regulation Bodies
Ministry of labor and social policy
 
 

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Latest Update: November 2022