Operating a Business

flag Philippines (the) Philippines (the): Operating a Business

In this page: Legal Forms of Companies | The Active Population in Figures | Working Conditions | The Cost of Labour | Management of Human Resources


Legal Forms of Companies

The Corporation is a joint-stock company.
Number of partners: Minimum 5 shareholders, at least 3 shareholders must be Philippine.
Capital (max/min): PHP 5,000.
Click here for details.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.
Sole Partnership is a single-member company
Number of partners: Only 1 person
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is unlimited.
General Partnership
Number of partners: Minimum 2 partners
Capital (max/min): PHP 3,000.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is unlimited.
Limited Partnership
Number of partners: Minimum 2 partners
Capital (max/min): PHP 3,000.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.

Business Setup Procedures

Setting Up a Company Philippines (the) East Asia & Pacific
Procedures (number) 13.00 7.25
Time (days) 33.00 29.73

Source: The World Bank - Doing Business, Latest data available.

The Competent Organisation
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
For Further Information
Consult Doing Business Website, to know about procedures to start a Business in Philippines.
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI

Financial Information Directories

Dun & Bradstreet - Worldwide directory with financial information on businesses


Recovery Procedures

The recovery of companies in difficulty allows them to maintain their activities and return to a viable situation. The Securities Regulation Code specifies that regular tribunals are competent.
Minimum Debt-to-Capital Ratio Triggering Liquidation
No legal minimum.
Bankruptcy Laws
Legislation on bankruptcy includes the Insolvency Law and many regulations and decrees, which make up an out of date and sometimes incoherent framework. In July 2010, the Philippine Congress passed a new bankruptcy and insolvency law that provides a more predictable framework for the rehabilitation and liquidation of distressed companies.
Reorganization and Rehabilitation Laws
The Rules on Corporate Rehabilitation define the conditions for restructuring.

Return to top

The Active Population in Figures

Labour Force 43,868,08745,122,82743,719,193

Source: International Labour Organization - ILOSTAT, Latest data available.

Total activity rate 61.87%61.77%62.30%
Men activity rate 76.12%75.38%75.24%
Women activity rate 47.39%47.94%49.13%

Source: International Labour Organization - ILOSTAT, Latest data available.

For Further Statistics
Philippine Labor Market Information.

Return to top

Working Conditions

Opening Hours
  • Legal Weekly Duration
8 hours/day, 40 or 48 hours/week.
  • Night Hours
Between 10 pm and 6 am the next day.
Working Rest Day
One day of rest every seven consecutive days worked.
Paid Annual Vacation
5 days of paid vacation a year after one year's work.
Retirement Age
Child Labour and Minimum Age For Employment
Work is forbidden under 15 years of age, unless it is carried out in the family and does not interfere with school activities.
Informal Labour Market
The low official unemployment rate does not take into account the extent of under-employment and the informal sector.

Return to top

The Cost of Labour


Minimum Wage
The minimum wage varies according to the type of activity. The full list from the National Wages and Productivity Commission can be consulted here.
Average Wage
Gross average monthly wage : PHP 16,486 (source: PSA, 2020, latest available data, selected occupations).
Other Forms of Pay
  • Pay For Overtime
Overtime is paid 125% of the normal hourly rate.
  • Pay For Rest Days Worked
Work on a public holiday is paid 130% of the normal remuneration, or 150% if this holiday was supposed to be a rest day.
  • Pay For Night Hours
Hours of night work (between 10 pm and 6 am) must be paid at least 10% more than the normal rate.
  • Pay For Overtime at Night
Overtime at night is paid 110% of the hourly overtime rate.

Social Security Costs

The Areas Covered
Sickness, disability, maternity, retirement, death and funerals.
Contributions Paid By the Employer: Employers’ maximum contribution for each employee is PHP 2,155 per month for Social Security System (SSS), varying according to the income class of the employee.
For Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF) and Philippine Health Corporation (PHIC), the maximum monthly deductions are PHP 100 and PHP 900, respectively.
Contributions Paid By the Employee: Employees are required to make monthly contributions to the Social Security System (SSS) based on their salary bracket, ranging from PHP 135 to PHP 1,125.

They are also required to make monthly contributions to Philippine Health Corporation (PHIC) and Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF) based on their salary bracket, ranging from PHP 150 to PHP 900 for PHIC and PHP 100 (where monthly compensation is at least PHP 5,000) for HDM.
Competent Organization
Philippine Social Security System
Philippine Health Insurance Corporation

Return to top

Management of Human Resources



Method of Recruitment
Internet is used more and more, and an interview is generally planned.
Recruitment Agencies
A list of recruitment agencies is available on PhilRecruit Online.
Recruitment Websites
Better Team

The Contract

Type of Contract
Employment contracts are regulated by legal clauses and to a lesser degree by collective agreements and individual negotiations.
The terms of employment contracts are extremely rigid.

Breach of Contracts

  • Retirement
Retirement age appears in the collective agreement or the hiring contract.
  • Dismissals
Dismissal can be decided if it is justified by: serious misconduct or a refusal to obey the orders of a superior, growing habitual negligence towards the employee's responsibilities, fraud or voluntary breach of the established contract of trust, a crime or offense against one's employer, his family or his representatives. Redundancy is also allowed (staff restrictions, etc.).
  • Other Possible Methods
A contract can be terminated if it arrives at term, if the employee resigns, or retires.
Labour Laws
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the labor regulations that apply to local entreprises.

Dispute Settlement


Conciliation Process

Cases of Dispute
Not observing the minimum wage, not paying social contributions, or bonuses and overtime, dangerous working conditions, forced labor
  • Legal Framework
The Constitution and the Philippine Labor Code.
  • Procedure
The parties can have recourse to mediation, conciliation or arbitration provided for in the Labor Code, or submit a written request for intervention (AIDA) to the office of the  Secretary of Labor and Employment.

Judicial Structures

  • Legal Framework
The Constitution (en anglais) and the Philippine Labor Code.
  • Competent Legal Body
The National Labor Relations Commission, attached to the Ministry of Labor

Social Partners

Employer Associations
PHILCHAM - Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industries
FPI - Federation of Philippine Industries
Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
The two main groups of trade unions are TUCP and FFW. They are affiliated to the international Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and to the Worldwide Confederation of Labor ( WCL).
In 2012, there were 135 registered labor federations and 16,647 private sector unions. The 1.38 million union members represented approximately 3.4 percent of the total workforce of 40.4 million. Mainstream union federations typically enjoy good working relationships with employers.
Unionisation Rate
3,4 % of workers are unionized.
Labour Unions
Federation of Free Workers
Kilusang Mayo Uno

Return to top

Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.


© eexpand, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: March 2024