Economic and Political Overview

flag Peru Peru: Economic and Political Overview

In this page: Economic Indicators | Foreign Trade in Figures | Sources of General Economic Information | Political Outline | COVID-19 Country Response


Economic Indicators

In the context of robust economic growth spanning the past 25 years, Peru has encountered numerous setbacks in recent years. Peru experienced an economic downturn as its GDP declined in the first and second quarters of 2023, attributed to decreased private investment and consumption, possibly stemming from protests and increased political uncertainties. Additionally, vital sectors such as agriculture, construction, and fishing were adversely affected by climatic events. The latest projections from the Banco Central de Reserva del Perú (BCRP) pointed to a negative growth of 0.5% in 2023, while projecting an annual growth rate of 3% over 2024/25 thanks to the recovery of some key industries, including agriculture.

The fiscal deficit was projected to increase to 2.1% of GDP in 2023, primarily driven by a significant decrease in fiscal revenues, which outweighs a lesser reduction in expenditures. The decline in revenues is largely attributed to lower economic growth and copper prices. Meanwhile, expenditures have decreased due to the winding down of pandemic-related spending, despite higher salaries, and the implementation of Con Punche Peru and measures to address climatic events. The IMF anticipates the deficit to decrease to 1.9% in 2024 and 1.6% in 2025, as revenues increase with the resurgence of economic activity, while current spending remains inflexible amidst the delicate political equilibrium. Fiscal discipline has allowed Peru to keep the public debt-to-GDP ratio at a low level: it stood at 33.9% as of 2023, and is expected to remain stable over the forecast horizon. Data from the Banco Central de Reserva del Perú pointed to an inflation rate averaging 3% in 2023 (compared to 8.5% one year earlier), with rate gradually returning towards the 2% target by 2025.

Although the unemployment rate in Peru doubled during the early stages of the pandemic, unemployment has been decreasing and, in 2023, stood at 7.6%. According to IMF estimates, the country's unemployment rate is expected to remain stable in 2024 and 2025, at 7.4% and 7.3%, respectively. However, the informal economy continues to employ a large part of the active population. Moreover, the country has high levels of inequality, with a significant concentration of wealth, and a poverty rate of 27.5% (World Bank). There are serious regional disparities in poverty throughout the country, with the highest numbers being in the Andean and Amazonian regions.

Main Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 245.01267.59282.46294.78307.19
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 2.7-
GDP per Capita (USD) 7,3367,9338,2918,5678,839
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -2.2-2.6-2.5-2.2-1.8
General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP) 33.932.133.033.333.2
Inflation Rate (%)
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labour Force)
Current Account (billions USD) -9.911.68-3.19-4.03-4.39
Current Account (in % of GDP) -4.00.6-1.1-1.4-1.4

Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database , Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

Peru’s varied geography is reflected in the country’s economy. The abundance of resources is found mainly in mineral deposits in the mountainous regions, while its extensive maritime territory has traditionally yielded excellent fishing resources. However, due to its complicated geographical features (such as the arid coast, the rugged Andes and the hard-to-reach jungle), Peru has a rather small agricultural area, which occupies only 20% of the territory. Still, the sector is fairly significant compared to the size of the country's arable land. Agriculture contributes to 7.8% of Peru's GDP and employs 26% of the active population. The country’s main agricultural products are cotton, sugarcane, coffee, wheat, rice, maize, quinoa, and barley. Peru is also one of the world's leading exporters of artichokes, mangoes, citrus, avocado, and grapes. In 2023, the agricultural sector experienced its first contraction in several years, declining by 3%, as a result of the droughts in late 2022, the coastal El Niño phenomenon , and Cyclone Yaku, according to the latest forecasts from the Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.

The industry sector generates 34% of the GDP, employing 17% of the active population. Peru has a large and dynamic mining industry, mainly for copper and gold extraction. The country has been a mining economy since colonial times, and the country is the world’s third producer of silver, the eleventh producer of gold, the second producer of copper, and an important supplier of zinc and lead. Large mining has begun during the past years, which increased even more the importance of the mining sector. The country also has large reserves of natural gas and oil, although Peru is a net energy importer. The main manufacturing activities are textiles, consumer goods, food processing and fish products. In 2023, the industrial sector recorded its third-worst decrease in the last thirty years, contracting an estimated 6.4% (data Sociedad Nacional de Industrias).

The tertiary sector contributes 49.5% of the GDP and employs 57% of the workforce. The sector consists of tourism, financial services and telecommunication, all of which have boomed due to a combined effort from both the government and private sector. The tourism and construction sectors, particularly, are very well developed. In the first seven months of 2023, the tertiary sector contracted by 0.4% (data Central Bank).

Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 27.9 17.0 55.1
Value Added (in % of GDP) 7.2 34.8 49.4
Value Added (Annual % Change) 3.0 1.3 3.3

Source: World Bank - Latest available data.


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Monetary Indicators 20162017201820192020
Peruvian Nuevo Sol (PEN) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 MUR

Source: World Bank - Latest available data.


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Indicator of Economic Freedom


The Economic freedom index measure ten components of economic freedom, grouped into four broad categories or pillars of economic freedom: Rule of Law (property rights, freedom from corruption); Limited Government (fiscal freedom, government spending); Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labour freedom, monetary freedom); and Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom). Each of the freedoms within these four broad categories is individually scored on a scale of 0 to 100. A country’s overall economic freedom score is a simple average of its scores on the 10 individual freedoms.

World Rank:
Regional Rank:

Economic freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Index of Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation


Business environment ranking


The business rankings model measures the quality or attractiveness of the business environment in the 82 countries covered by The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Country Forecast reports. It examines ten separate criteria or categories, covering the political environment, the macroeconomic environment, market opportunities, policy towards free enterprise and competition, policy towards foreign investment, foreign trade and exchange controls, taxes, financing, the labour market and infrastructure.

World Rank:

Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit - Business Environment Rankings 2020-2024


Country Risk

See the country risk analysis provided by Coface.


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Foreign Trade in Figures

Peru is a member of the WTO and very open to international trade, which represents 58% of GDP. The country mainly exports copper (27.4%), gold (12.7%), petroleum gas (5.3%), petroleum oils (4.1%), and flours of meat (3.1%); while it imports petroleum oils (17.3%), motor vehicles (3%), telephone sets (2.7%), motor vehicles for the transport of goods (2.4%), and maize or corn (2.1% - data Comtrade 2022).

In 2022, the country's main export partners were China (30.1%), the United States (14.5%), Japan (4.9%), Canada (4.5%), and South Korea (4.5%), as imports came chiefly from China (26.1%), the United States (23.7%), Brazil (7.0%), Argentina (5.0%), and Mexico (3.3% - data Comtrade). Nearly 95% of Peru's exports are covered by Free Trade Agreements currently in force, which enables Peruvian products to enter, subject to the rules of origin of each trade agreement, under preferential conditions to 53 countries, including Canada, Chile, China, the member countries of the European Union, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and the United States, among others. The country is seeking to position itself as a regional hub for trade between Latin America and the APEC countries (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation).

Peru has a structurally positive trade balance. In 2022, exports of goods increased to USD 61.3 billion (+2.7% y-o-y), but imports increased at a faster pace (+19.7% y-o-y) and reached USD 60.9 billion. According to the WTO, imports of services in 2022 totalled USD 13.6 billion, while exports stood at USD 4.9 billion. Peruvian exports, as of the end of 2023, saw an increase (+1.1%) and hit a new historical high, reaching USD 64.355 billion. This growth was propelled by the expansion of mining exports (+11.4%) and agro-industrial exports (+9.2%). At the close of 2023, Peruvian imports totaled USD 51,962.9 million, reflecting a 13.6% decrease compared to 2022, a year marked by record-high imports in Peru (data SUNAT).

Foreign Trade Indicators 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 42,28436,14050,89160,97952,306
Exports of Goods (million USD) 46,44439,60059,64862,91160,756
Imports of Services (million USD) 10,6807,57910,71813,60413,528
Exports of Services (million USD) 6,6962,7182,9474,9625,731
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 1.7-15.426.34.2n/a
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 0.3-16.419.25.9n/a
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 22.921.126.529.1n/a
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 24.022.729.529.3n/a
Trade Balance (million USD) 6,8798,10214,97710,333n/a
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 2,8953,2417,2061,691n/a
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 46.943.856.058.4n/a

Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation ; World Bank , Latest Available Data


Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
China 30.1%
United States 14.5%
Japan 4.9%
Canada 4.5%
South Korea 4.5%
See More Countries 41.6%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
China 26.1%
United States 23.7%
Brazil 7.0%
Argentina 5.0%
Mexico 3.3%
See More Countries 34.8%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data


Main Products

58.2 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 23.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 12.7%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 5.3%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 4.3%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 4.1%
See More Products 50.5%
60.3 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 13.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 4.2%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.0%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 2.7%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 2.4%
See More Products 74.5%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data


To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.


Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Latest Available Data

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Sources of General Economic Information

Official list of ministries (in Spanish)
Ministry of Economy and Finances (in Spanish)
Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (in Spanish)
Ministry of Foreign Relations (in Spanish)
Ministry of Agrarian Development and Irrigation (in Spanish)
Ministry of Energy and Mines (in Spanish)
Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion (in Spanish)
Statistical Office
National Institute of Statistics (in Spanish)
Central Bank
Central Reserve Bank of Peru
Stock Exchange
Lima Stock Exchange (in Spanish)
Search Engines
The Search Beat
Peruvian general search engine
Economic Portals
Business News Americas
Observatório de la Economía de Perú
Economía latino-americana

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Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Dina Boluarte (since 7 December 2022)
Prime Minister: Alberto Otárola (since 21 December 2022)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: April 2026
Congress of the Republic of Peru: April 2026
Main Political Parties
Peru has a multi-party system and it is difficult for a single political party to secure an absolute majority in the Congress. Thus, political groups often work with each other to form coalition alliances consisting of smaller parties. The main parliamentary forces are:

- Popular Force (FP): right-wing, fujimorism, conservatism, right-wing populism
- Free Peru (PL): left-wing to far-left, socialism, Marxism
- Popular Renewal (RP): right-wing to far-right, social conservatism, economic liberalism, anti-immigration
- Popular Action (AP): centre to centre-right, reformism, nationalism, paternalistic conservatism
- Alliance for Progress (APP): centre-right, conservative liberalism, progressivism, populism
- Go on Country – Social Integration Party (AvP): centre-right to right-wing, liberal conservatism, economic liberalism
- Together for Peru (JP): centre-left to left-wing, democratic socialism, progressivism
- Magisterial Bloc of National Concertation (BMCN): left-wing, it brings together several dissident legislators from Peru Libre
- Podemos Peru (PP): centre-right to right-wing, social conservatism, populism, protectionism
- Advance Country – Social Integration Party: right-wing to far-right
- We Are Peru (SP): centre-right, social conservatism, Christian democracy, Christian humanism.

Type of State
Republic based on parliamentary democracy.
Executive Power
The President is the chief of the state and head of the government, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and holds executive powers, which include the implementation of the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the country. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term (not eligible for an immediate re-election) and appoints the Council of Ministers (cabinet) and the Prime Minister to serve for five-year terms as well. All Presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to parliament must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The first and second vice presidents are also popularly elected, but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.
Legislative Power
The legislature is unicameral. The parliament - called Congress - consists of 130 seats, with its members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Congress ratifies treaties, authorises government loans, and approves the government budget. The President has the power to veto acts of the legislature, and, in turn, a supermajority (generally a two-thirds majority) of legislators may act to override the veto. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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COVID-19 Country Response

Travel restrictions
Regularly updated travel information for all countries with regards to Covid-19 related entry regulations, flight bans, test and vaccines requirements is available on TravelDoc Infopage.
To find information about the current travel regulations, including health requirements, it is also advised to consult Travel Regulations Map provided and updated on a daily basis by IATA.
Import & export restrictions
A general overview of trade restrictions which were adopted by different countries during the COVID-19 pandemic is available on the International Trade Centre's COVID-19 Temporary Trade Measures webpage.
Economic recovery plan
For the general overview of the key economic policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (fiscal, monetary and macroeconomic) undertaken by the government of Peru, please consult the country's dedicated section in the IMF’s Policy Tracker platform.
Support plan for businesses
For an evaluation of impact of the Covid pandemic on SMEs and an inventory of country responses to foster SME resilience, refer to the OECD's SME Covid-19 Policy Responses document.
You can also consult the World Bank's Map of SME-Support Measures in Response to COVID-19.


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Latest Update: May 2024