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The Sultanate of Oman has had extraordinary economic development since 2004, primarily due to the exploitation of its oil reserves. Despite Omani authorities' swift attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19 pandemic, social distancing measures took their toll on the economy, which contracted by 3.2% in 2020, according to the IMF. Nonetheless, this was much smaller than an earlier projection of 10%, as oil production fell at a slower rate than initially expected. Oman's GDP was again in positive territory in 2021 (+3%) and 2022 (+4.4%). It is now expected to reach 4.1% in 2023, mainly supported by the oil industry, and 1.9% in 2024.
Oman has a relatively healthy economic and financial situation. Nonetheless, the government debt expanded to an estimated 69.7% of GDP in 2020 from 60.5% in 2019 amid higher social and health expenditure, and then 62.9% of GDP in 2022, before decreasing to 45.4% in 2022. Public debt is expected to decrease again to 41.1% in 2023 and 38.1% in 2024. Lower global oil prices, paired with weaker fiscal revenues pulled the current account deficit to 17% of GDP in 2020, but Omani authorities aimed to halve the deficit in 2021 through fiscal consolidation measures : it came back to 6.1% in 2021 and 6.2% in 2022. A 5% value-added tax was introduced in April 2021, along with an expansion of the excise tax base. Inflation, which was 1.5% in 2021 increased to 3.1% in 2022 and is forecasted to come down to 1.9% in 2023 and 2.1% in 2024. Oman's financial soundness indicators were healthy, according to IMF estimates, with banks' liquidity coverage ratio standing around 200% early in 2022, considerably higher than legally mandated levels. In a bid to improve management of oil and gas revenues, the government established a new holding company called Energy Development of Oman (EDO). At the same time, in order to decrease its dependence on raw materials, Oman has established reforms to liberalise and diversify its economy in the framework of its “2040 Vision Plan” (continuation of 2020 Vision Plan), which aims to increase investment in the tourism, financial services and port activity sectors. Such reforms are slowly paying off, as confirmed by the fact that non-oil and gas economy now accounts for more than two-thirds of GDP.
According to World Bank, unemployment rate reached 3.1% in 2021, one of the highest level in nearly 30 years. At the same time, roughly half of Oman's youths are unemployed. Besides, nearly two million jobs are taken by migrant workers (National Centre for Statistics). The government introduced initiatives to tackle the high share of expatriate workers, including bans on foreign worker visas, to promote employment of Omani citizens.
Oil price volatility and insufficient fiscal adjustment could worsen the twin deficits and increase gross financing needs. Fiscal consolidation could also give rise to social tensions, thus undermining the reform drive. On the upside, a further rise in oil prices accompanied with a successful implementation of the reforms would improve the outlook (World Bank, 2022).
|Main Indicators||2020||2021||2022 (E)||2023 (E)||2024 (E)|
|GDP (billions USD)||73.97||88.19||114.67||104.90||109.69|
|GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change)||-3.2||2.9||4.3||1.7||5.2|
|GDP per Capita (USD)||16,640||19,479||24,772||21,960||22,250|
|General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP)||69.7||61.3||40.1||42.8||40.6|
|Inflation Rate (%)||-0.9||1.5||2.8||1.9||2.4|
|Current Account (billions USD)||-12.31||-4.29||3.73||2.24||1.54|
|Current Account (in % of GDP)||-16.6||-4.9||3.3||2.1||1.4|
Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database , Latest available data
Note: (e) Estimated Data
Oman has a workforce of 2.25 million out of its 5.27 million population, of whom about 40% are expatriates. The share of expatriate workers has declined in recent years as Oman implemented a visa ban to boost hiring of Omani citizens. Prior to the discovery of oil fields, Oman was virtually a subsistence economy that was entirely based on agriculture and fisheries. Nowadays, the latter contributes only marginally to GDP (2.1%) and employs 4% of the workforce (World Bank, 2023). Agricultural production is mainly composed of dates, limes, bananas, and owing to the lack of fertile land the country needs to import from international markets.
The industrial sector accounts for 50.6% of GDP and employs 32% of the workforce (World Bank, 2023). Its share has increased considerably in the last two decades (employment in industries was as low as 11% in 2000) as Oman increasingly uses enhanced oil recovery techniques and supports mining and manufacturing. The manufacturing sector alone is estimated to contribute to 10% of GDP (World Bank). However, the country is heavily dependent on oil and gas resources, which generate between and 68% and 85% of government revenue on average, depending on fluctuations in commodity prices.
The services sector accounts for 50.5% of GDP and 64% of the workforce (down from 82.4% in 2000). Oil-related activities comprise a significant share of the services sector; however, logistics (maritime transport in particular) and financial activities are growing steadily. Tourism is one of the sectors being developed in order for the Sultanate to build a sustainable non-oil future, and the number of tourists has more than doubled in the last decade (3.5 million in 2019, according to the National Centre for Statistics and Information) and just over 400 000 in 2022, recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic.
|Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
|Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment)||4.0||32.0||64.0|
|Value Added (in % of GDP)||2.1||50.6||50.5|
|Value Added (Annual % Change)||9.0||1.1||4.9|
Source: World Bank - Latest available data.
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|Omani Rial (OMR) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 MUR||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01|
Source: World Bank - Latest available data.
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The Economic freedom index measure ten components of economic freedom, grouped into four broad categories or pillars of economic freedom: Rule of Law (property rights, freedom from corruption); Limited Government (fiscal freedom, government spending); Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labour freedom, monetary freedom); and Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom). Each of the freedoms within these four broad categories is individually scored on a scale of 0 to 100. A country’s overall economic freedom score is a simple average of its scores on the 10 individual freedoms.
Oman's economy is very open and trade represented more than 94% of the country’s GDP in 2021 (World Bank, 2023). The Sultanate mainly exports hydrocarbons and petrochemicals, and in the past few years has been trying to diversify its economy, with a growing share of industrial products in total exports. Oman´s economy is highly dependent on exports of oil (42% of total exports) and liquefied natural gas (26%). Other exports include chemicals, plastics and rubber products. The country’s demand for consumer goods and equipment has been growing in the past few years. The main imports are led by petroleum oils, vehicles, electronics and iron.
The UAE is by far the largest receiver of Omani exports, accounting for more than 21% of the total, followed by Saudi Arabia (10.7%), the United States (9.3%) and India (7.2%). The Sultanate’s main suppliers are United Arab Emirates (36%), China (7%), India (6.6%), Qatar and the United States (Comtrade 2022).
According to WTO data, in 2021, Oman exported goods for a total value of 44.59 billion USD, up from 31.68 billion USD the previous year, while imports of goods amounted to 30.99 billion USD, against 20.96 billion USD a year earlier. The country is a net importer of services and its trade balance is structurally positive (16.54 billion USD in 2021) but it is highly sensitive to hydrocarbon prices fluctuations. The country possesses many assets which facilitate the development of trade, such as its high-quality port facilities. However, slow procedures and rigid labour laws remain significant obstacles to trade. Customs duties are relatively low, and there are not many trade barriers in the country. Most goods produced in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member countries are duty-free if accompanied by a certificate of origin. However, imported alcoholic beverages, tobacco and pork products are subject to the highest custom fees (100%). The government hopes to ratify free trade agreements with the European Union, China and Japan, similar to the one that was signed with the United States in September 2006.
|Foreign Trade Indicators||2017||2018||2019||2020||2021|
|Imports of Goods (million USD)||26,435||25,770||23,507||20,960||30,995|
|Exports of Goods (million USD)||32,904||41,761||38,724||31,685||44,591|
|Imports of Services (million USD)||10,811||11,729||12,093||5,539||0|
|Exports of Services (million USD)||4,010||4,591||5,001||1,830||0|
|Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||13.8||-4.4||-3.4||-8.9||2.7|
|Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||-0.8||2.8||1.9||-14.6||14.2|
|Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||43.2||38.7||37.0||44.8||41.4|
|Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||45.7||50.6||49.5||47.1||52.5|
|Trade Balance (million USD)||8,765||18,084||18,229||7,638||16,542|
|Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD)||1,889||10,946||11,015||1,697||9,822|
|Foreign Trade (in % of GDP)||89.0||89.3||86.5||91.9||93.9|
Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation ; World Bank , Latest Available Data
(% of Exports)
|United Arab Emirates||8.6%|
|See More Countries||78.4%|
(% of Imports)
|United Arab Emirates||35.6%|
|See More Countries||39.6%|
Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data
|44.6 bn USD of products exported in 2021|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude||41.9%|
|Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons||9.9%|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals||8.7%|
|Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg)||3.4%|
|Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702)||2.1%|
|See More Products||34.1%|
|31.0 bn USD of products imported in 2021|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals||10.9%|
|Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites||6.1%|
|Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702)||5.6%|
|Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528)||2.5%|
|Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form||1.9%|
|See More Products||73.1%|
Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data
To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.
|2.2 bn USD of services exported in 2020|
|8.3 bn USD of services imported in 2020|
Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Latest Available Data
The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).
The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.
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Latest Update: September 2023