Trade Profile

flag Niger Niger: Trade Profile

Foreign Trade in Figures

Niger is open to foreign trade, which represents 35% of the country's GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The country aims to implement the trade policy of the WAEMU and is integrated into the generalized system of preferences (GSP) of the EU. Customs duties are not very high. Production costs, limited credit facilities, and import-export activities through the informal sector have limited the development of international trade. The country mainly exports petroleum oils (28.8%), gold (16.7%), onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, and others (3%), palm oil and its fractions (2.3%), self-propelled bulldozers, graders (1.5%). The main imported products include Rice (14.4%), parts and accessories for weapons (9.0%), parts of aircraft (6.4%), powered aircraft (3.7%), tubes and pipes (3.4% - data Comtrade 2022).

Niger's main customers are France (33.2%), Mali (18.7%), Nigeria (16.0%), United Arab Emirates (8.9%), and South Africa (7.0%); whereas imports come chiefly from China (23.9%), France (21.0%), India (10.3%), Nigeria (7.7%), Germany (5.1%).

Niger's trade balance is structurally in deficit. In 2022, merchandise exports stood at USD 1.2 billion against 3.8 billion in imports (data WTO). In the same year, exports of services reached USD 295 million while imports amounted to 1.2 billion. The overall trade balance was estimated to be negative by 17.9% of GDP by the World Bank, compared to 17% one year earlier. As per the same source, in 2023, formal trade volumes declined, with exports dropping by 8.1% and imports by 12% due to international sanctions. However, exports are expected to pick up significantly in the short term due to the completion of a 2,000 km pipeline by the China National Petroleum Corporation.

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 2,8752,9313,1093,5573,802
Exports of Goods (million USD) 1,2021,1261,1161,2121,256
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,0861,0691,0761,2081,242
Exports of Services (million USD) 247261222279295
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 96375
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) -41-67-0
Trade Balance (million USD) -1,079-1,200-1,351-1,611n/a
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 3838363839
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 2626262729
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 1211101010

Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation ; World Bank - Latest available data.

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Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
France 33.2%
Mali 18.7%
Nigeria 16.0%
United Arab Emirates 8.9%
South Africa 7.0%
See More Countries 16.2%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
China 23.9%
France 21.0%
India 10.3%
Nigeria 7.7%
Germany 5.1%
See More Countries 32.1%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data

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Main Products

0.4 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 28.8%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 16.7%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled 3.0%
Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined...Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 2.3%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and roadrollers 1.5%
See More Products 47.7%
3.8 bn USD of products imported in 2022
RiceRice 14.4%
Parts and accessories for weapons and the like of...Parts and accessories for weapons and the like of heading 9301 to 9304, n.e.s. 9.0%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 6.4%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 3.7%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 3.4%
See More Products 63.1%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data


To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows


Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Latest Available Data

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Commercial Policy

International Economic Cooperation
Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO)
Member of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Member of West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)

Member of African Union (AU)

Assessment of Commercial Policy
Country's commercial policy
Average Customs Duty (Excluding Agricultural Products)

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Latest Update: May 2024