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In this page: FDI in Figures | What to consider if you invest in Angola | Procedures Relative to Foreign Investment | Investment Opportunities

 

FDI in Figures

According to UNCTAD’s World Investment Report 2023, FDI flows to Angola remained negative for the fifth consecutive year in 2022 (-USD 6.1 billion) as companies in the oil sector continued to repay loans. Similarly, the stock of FDI in the country decreased significantly to USD 14.7 billion from USD 20.8 billion in 2021, now representing around 12.1% of its GDP, a share that halved over the last five years. The petroleum sector remains the main destination for FDI flows. Most FDI in Angola comes from the Netherlands, France, China, Portugal, and Brazil (IMF). The vast majority of foreign investment is directed towards the region of the capital Luanda (Angola’s Private Investment and Export Promotion Agency – AIPEX).

Rich in hydrocarbons, minerals, fisheries, and agricultural land, Angola also has significant hydroelectric potential. The government is striving to improve the business climate and has adopted favorable legislation in recent years, including a new Private Investment Law reducing the minimum capital requirement, facilitating capital repatriation, and eliminating the requirement that local investors have a 35% stake; a Competition Law; a Privatization Law; and a law allowing the creation of free trade zones. A single contact mechanism enables investors to obtain the necessary permits in a simplified manner. The National Agency for Investment Promotion and Export (APIEX) aims to stimulate economic growth, diversify the economy, and expand private sector participation in Angola's economy. Although known for its challenging business environment, Angola is endeavoring to enhance its investment climate and make strides in anti-corruption measures, democracy, governance, and human rights. Nevertheless, a sluggish and non-transparent judicial system poses a deterrent to investment and occasionally hampers contract enforcement efficiency. Likewise, the perception and occurrence of corruption continue to concern investors, especially outside the extractive industries. On October 9, 2023, the Council approved the signing of the Sustainable Investment Facilitation Agreement (SIFA) between the European Union and Angola. This agreement aims to streamline the process of attracting and expanding investments while incorporating environmental and labor rights commitments into the EU-Angola relationship. Angola ranks last among the 132 economies on the Global Innovation Index 2023 and 118th out of 177 countries on the 2023 Index of Economic Freedom.

 
 
Foreign Direct Investment 202020212022
FDI Inward Flow (million USD) -1,866-4,355-6,142
FDI Stock (million USD) 21,59520,86114,719
Number of Greenfield Investments* 1795
Value of Greenfield Investments (million USD) 3,4372,594359

Source: UNCTAD - Latest available data.

Note: * Greenfield Investments are a form of Foreign Direct Investment where a parent company starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up.

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What to consider if you invest in Angola

Strong Points

The main assets of Angola are:

  • Political and economic stability regained around a broad consensus and under the leadership of a solid political majority after 27 years of civil war,
  • A large population makes the country the third-largest market in sub-Saharan Africa,
  • Important natural resources (second-largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, mining production, diamond production),
  • Strong growth potential for non-oil sectors such as agriculture, construction and tourism,
  • A young and booming labour force,
  • Attractive for FDI in recent years.
Weak Points

Among the factors that are detrimental to foreign investment are:

  • High vulnerability to oil price fluctuations: 98% of export earnings come from oil production,
  • The suboptimal business environment with high market entry costs, heavy and relatively slow bureaucracy and overall low confidence in the current government by businesses,
  • Inadequate infrastructure,
  • The lack of qualifications of the workforce and a high unemployment rate (32.7% in 2020 - French Ministry for the Economy, Finance and Recovery) which sustains the high rate of poverty,
  • The weakness of the judicial system, the persistence of corruption and the lack of transparency in general and in the public accounts in particular,
  • High general government gross debt (120.3% of GDP in 2020 - IMF),
  • An underdeveloped financial system.
Government Measures to Motivate or Restrict FDI
The Angolan government is strongly in favour of FDI, perceived as a necessity for the diversification of the economy. In fact, the importance of the New Private Investment Act of 2018 and the President's new policy to promote trust in compliance by fighting against corruption are evidence of this. Investors, foreigners or not, theoretically have the same right of access to incentives, even if the policy of "Angolanization" aims to promote the employment of nationals. Private investment (domestic and foreign) is regulated by ANIP (Agência Nacional Pelo Investimento Privado). To benefit from the tax incentives and other benefits provided by this law, foreign entities must invest an amount equal to or greater than US$1 million. Regarding capital repatriations, the law guarantees foreign investors the right to transfer dividends or other income from a direct investment out of the country. Ever since 2020, importing capital from foreign investors willing to invest in Angolan companies is immuned from licensing by the Angolan central bank. The Agency also sets priority sectors such as agriculture and fisheries, processing industries, rail, road, airport and port infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology, fisheries and its derivatives, energy and water, social housing, health and education, hotel industry and tourism. These sectors present considerable investment opportunities given their potential and the incentives put in place.
Bilateral Investment Conventions Signed By Angola
Angola has signed a number of bilateral agreements. For more details, see the UNCTAD website.

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Procedures Relative to Foreign Investment

Freedom of Establishment
Yes
Acquisition of Holdings
Possible. The Angolan government must be the major or main shareholder in infrastructure projects related to telecommunications systems and postal services. Some areas are closed to FDI, for example: military aircrafts and security equipment, the activities of the Central Bank, the national currency, ports and airports.
Obligation to Declare
A special investment regime applies to the oil, diamond and financial sectors.
Competent Organisation For the Declaration
National Private Investment Agency of Angola
Requests For Specific Authorisations
For projects with an investment value exceeding US$ 10m, an investment contract with the Angolan government is necessary and must be authorized by the Council of Ministers and finally approved by the president. Some areas are closed to FDI, for example: military aircrafts and security equipment, the activities of the Central Bank, the national currency, ports and airports.

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Investment Opportunities

Investment Aid Agency
AIPEX – Agency for Private Investment and Promotion of Exports of Angola
Tenders, Projects and Public Procurement
Africa Gateway
DgMarket, Tenders Worldwide
Other Useful Resources
Report on Angola (African Law & Business)
 
 

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Latest Update: April 2024