For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.
Largest oil producer in Africa, Angola also has the third largest GDP in sub-Saharan Africa (IMF). Economic growth is prone to large fluctuations, depending on oil production and prices levels. After the recession induced by the fall in oil prices and in world demand, restrictions under the OPEC+ production agreement and the COVID-19 pandemic, economic growth started to recover. From an estimated 0.8% in 2021, GDP growth picked up to 2.9% in 2022, supported by higher oil prices, improved oil production, and resilient non-oil activity (IMF). According to IMF’s latest estimates, GDP growth is expected to further accelerate to 3.5% in 2023 and reach about 4% in the medium term, thanks to structural reforms supporting the non-oil sector.
In 2022, the Angolan economy continued to recover from the pandemic-induced crisis, supported by stronger agriculture and services sector output, and by faster expansion of the oil sector amid the fallout from the war in Ukraine (Focus Economics). Despite the end of the IMF-supported program, continued reforms supported the economy. Overall fiscal balance worsened from 3.8% GDP in 2021 to 1.7% GDP in 2022, following higher-than-budgeted capital expenditure and higher-than-expected fuel subsidy costs, and is expected to be negative in 2023 (-0.4%) (IMF). The 2023 budget envisions a resumption of fiscal adjustment. Benefitting from a stronger exchange rate, public debt continued to drop, from 86.4% GDP in 2021 to 56.6% GDP in 2022. It is expected to further reduce to 52.5% GDP in 2023 and 47.9% GDP in 2024 (IMF). Driven by lower global food prices, a stronger kwanza, and previous efforts by the central bank to tighten monetary policy, inflation decreased from 25.8% in 2021 to 21.7% in 2022, and it is forecast to further decline to 11.8% in 2023 and 9.9% in 2023 (IMF). The 2023 budget reflects the authorities’ commitment to prudent budget management and support to inclusive growth, increasing the allocation for health, education and fight against poverty. Among the many challenges faced by the country, strengthening debt sustainability, addressing the financial sector’s weaknesses, diversifying the economy, improving governance and developing human capital and infrastructure should be key priorities (IMF).
President Joao Lourenço initiated numerous reforms aimed at reducing the influence of the dos Santos family on the economy, improving the perception of the business climate and getting the country out of the crisis, but the social situation of Angola remains tensed. Inequalities and inflation are nourishing people's dissatisfaction. Only a third of the population has access to electricity. The income per capita has been gradually increasing, especially in the metropolitan regions, but poverty and unemployment rates remain high. According to the African Development Bank, the pandemic is likely to have exacerbated the official poverty incidence of 40.6%. Poverty is more dominant in rural areas (around 60%) than in urban areas (around 20%). The unemployment rate fell below 30% in Q4 2022, but youth unemployment remained above 50% (INE). According to the World Bank data (modelled ILO estimate) unemployment rate was at 8.5% of labour force in 2021. Violence in the region of Kasaï (Democratic Republic of Congo) provoked the arrival of more than 30,000 refugees in Angola.
|Main Indicators||2020||2021||2022 (E)||2023 (E)||2024 (E)|
|GDP (billions USD)||57.14||74.79||121.42||117.88||124.10|
|GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change)||-5.6||1.1||2.8||3.5||3.7|
|GDP per Capita (USD)||1,709||2,168||3,400||3,205||3,276|
|General Government Balance (in % of GDP)||0.4||2.5||-0.3||-1.1||-2.3|
|General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP)||138.9||86.9||67.1||63.3||59.2|
|Inflation Rate (%)||22.3||25.8||21.4||11.7||10.8|
|Current Account (billions USD)||0.87||8.40||13.39||7.36||3.80|
|Current Account (in % of GDP)||1.5||11.2||11.0||6.2||3.1|
Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database , Latest available data
Note: (e) Estimated Data
Angola is Africa's largest oil producer, overtaking Nigeria, a net producer of natural gas and also the third largest producer of diamonds in the continent, surpassed only by Botswana and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Angolan economy - the third largest in sub-Saharan Africa - is dominated by the oil and gas industry, which accounts for about 50% of its GDP and is the primary source of revenue for the country (more than 70% of government revenue and 90% of Angola's exports come from oil activities). In addition to diamonds, the country also produces gold, granite, gypsum, marble, and salt, and possesses numerous undeveloped minerals with potential for extraction including beryllium, clay, copper, iron-ore, lead, lignite, manganese, mica, nickel, peat, phosphate rock, quartz, silver, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The industrial sector represents 44.1% of GDP and 7% of employment (World Bank).
Despite its potential, the agricultural sector is underdeveloped and not very productive, contributing to 7.9% of GDP but employs 51% of the population (World Bank). Only about a third of Angola's arable land is used for harvests; of those, only 100,000 out of 5 million arable hectares benefit from machinery and/or animal traction for sowing and harvesting. Angola's agriculture mainly consists of subsistence farming. The key industrial crops are coffee and cotton. The Government heavily invested in coffee, sugarcane and ethanol productions, which should help to diversify agricultural revenues and exports.
The services sector (banking, communication, tourism) is also growing rapidly, accounting for 46.5% of GDP and employing 42% of the population. Tourism is growing, although there is a severe shortage of hotels and other types of accommodation. The construction sector is booming (9% of GDP), driven by a large reconstruction program launched by the government.
|Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
|Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment)||50.7||6.8||42.5|
|Value Added (in % of GDP)||7.9||44.1||46.5|
|Value Added (Annual % Change)||17.2||-8.3||6.2|
Source: World Bank - Latest available data.
Find more information about your business sector on our service Market Reports.
|Angolan New Kwanza (AON) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 MUR||4.60||4.81||7.45||10.28||14.70|
Source: World Bank - Latest available data.
Find out all the exchange rates daily on our service Currency Converter.
The Economic freedom index measure ten components of economic freedom, grouped into four broad categories or pillars of economic freedom: Rule of Law (property rights, freedom from corruption); Limited Government (fiscal freedom, government spending); Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labour freedom, monetary freedom); and Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom). Each of the freedoms within these four broad categories is individually scored on a scale of 0 to 100. A country’s overall economic freedom score is a simple average of its scores on the 10 individual freedoms.
The business rankings model measures the quality or attractiveness of the business environment in the 82 countries covered by The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Country Forecast reports. It examines ten separate criteria or categories, covering the political environment, the macroeconomic environment, market opportunities, policy towards free enterprise and competition, policy towards foreign investment, foreign trade and exchange controls, taxes, financing, the labour market and infrastructure.
Angola has considerably liberalised its trade scheme over the last few years. Trade represents around 60% of the country's GDP (World Bank, latest available data). The country is a member of SADC (Southern African Development Community) and ECCAS (Economic Community of Central African States), and signed the African Continental Free Trade Agreement in May 2019. Custom duties are relatively low (9.5% in average). The imports of certain products, such as pharmaceuticals and agricultural products, still require authorisations from the concerned official ministries. Angola has also adopted the SADC guidelines on biotechnology, which ban the import of biotechnological particles. Delays in customs clearance at the ports still remain a major problem.
Oil exports account for more than 95% of total exports. The country is also a major exporter of diamonds and is exporting liquefied natural gas to the American, European and Japanese markets; other exports include, coffee, sisal, and fish. Imports mainly involve machinery, vehicles, spare parts, medicines, food, textiles, and military goods. Angola's main trade partners are China (more than 60% of exports and 15% of imports), India, the European Union (Portugal, Spain) and the United States.
Thanks to its comfortable oil revenues, Angola historically records a large but volatile trade surplus that should continue in the coming years. In 2021, merchandise exports increased to USD 33.6 billion (from USD 20.9 billion in 2020), while imports increased to USD 11.8 billion (from USD 9.5 billion). Services exports slightly increased to USD 94 million (from USD 66 million in 2020), while imports rose to USD 7 billion (from USD 5.4 billion) (WTO). Thanks to economic recovery and higher oil prices, the trade balance soared to USD 21.8 billion in 2021, up from USD 11.4 billion in 2020 (World Bank).
|Foreign Trade Indicators||2017||2018||2019||2020||2021|
|Imports of Goods (million USD)||14,463||15,798||14,127||9,543||11,795|
|Exports of Goods (million USD)||34,613||40,758||34,726||20,937||33,581|
|Imports of Services (million USD)||12,903||9,772||8,008||5,415||7,050|
|Exports of Services (million USD)||985||631||455||66||94|
|Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||11.2||-16.0||-25.0||-19.6||-18.3|
|Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||24.5||-7.6||-17.4||-6.7||10.4|
|Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||23.3||25.5||17.0||16.2||16.2|
|Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||29.0||40.8||40.8||35.6||44.3|
|Trade Balance (million USD)||20,150||24,960||20,599||11,394||21,787|
|Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD)||7,341||15,502||12,881||5,859||14,830|
|Foreign Trade (in % of GDP)||52.3||66.4||57.8||51.9||60.5|
Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation ; World Bank , Latest Available Data
(% of Exports)
|See More Countries||29.1%|
(% of Imports)
|See More Countries||51.1%|
Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data
To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.
|0.6 bn USD of services exported in 2018|
|Business travelBusiness travel||71.67%|
|Personal travelPersonal travel||14.55%|
|10.0 bn USD of services imported in 2018|
|Personal travelPersonal travel||4.97%|
|Business travelBusiness travel||0.58%|
Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Latest Available Data
The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).
The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.
Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.
© eexpand, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: September 2023